Belgian Research Action through Interdisciplinary Networks (BRAIN-be)

Funded by the Belgian federal government to the tune of €18 million a year, BRAIN-be is a research framework programme aimed at aligning research potential with societal needs and at supporting the scientific potential of federal research institutions. This multi-year programme has 6 research focuses: ecosystems and biodiversity; geosystems and climate; cultural, historic and scientific heritage; federal public strategies; major societal challenges; and collections management. BRAIN-be supports 2- or 4-year network projects, and pioneering projects lasting a maximum of 2 years.


These are the ULB research projects currently supported by the BRAIN-be programme:

Call for projects - 2017

BAMM!

With constant improvements in analysis technologies, samples can be measured more and more accurately, requiring increasingly small quantities. Project BAMM (Belgian Antarctic Meteorites and Micrometeorites to document solar system) proposes to study two groups of Antarctic samples: micrometeorites collected in the Sør Rondane mountains, and meteorites collected on the Nansen ice shelf (East Antarctica).

In-depth analyses of micrometeorites and their igneous texture will help determine their origins, as some of them come from asteroids that were never sampled through meteorites. The differences between unmelted micrometeorites and fully melted meteorites will also be investigated, in order to better understand the initial stages of metal-silicate segregation. Regarding meteorites, project BAMM will look into nucleosynthetic anomalies found in certain types of meteorites: researchers will attempt to identify, using in situ measurements, what mineral phases are present and how they are destroyed though metamorphic processes in asteroids.

Project BAMM is led by the Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences, in partnership with VUB and ULB (Vinciane Debaille, ‘G-Time’ unit).

CHASE

Antarctica is considered the best-preserved region on Earth from anthropogenic emissions. However, the impact of anthropogenic airborne particles and pollutants could be significantly larger than expected and play a major role in present and near-future climate change. It is therefore essential to thoroughly document the chemical composition of the airborne particles, the volatile organic compounds (VOC) and present-day atmospheric pathways of the particles from source to deposition in Antarctica.

Through several sampling campaigns organized in Antarctica (close to the Princess Elisabeth Antarctica station), this project will provide a unique detailed physical-chemical database of both atmospheric and surface snow particles as well as of VOCs and thoroughly investigate their atmospheric transport pathways in Dronning Maud Land, East Antarctica. This research will help to interpret climatic data extracted from ice cores and the deposition of mineral nutrients, but also to better identify organic micro-pollutants in polar regions and their potential interactions with human activities.

Coordinated by the Royal Meteorological Institute of Belgium, the project associates the ULB - Laboratoire G-Time, N. Mattielli-, the VUB and the Ghent University.

DIABASE

During two meteorite sampling campaigns on the Nansen ice sheet (East Antarctica), moraines were also identified. Moraines are accumulations of rock debris carried by ice, found at the foot of glaciers. They indicate geological formations that are normally covered in kilometres of ice.

Project DIABASE (Disclosing the Antarctic Basement by Sampling ice field moraines) proposes to conduct a detailed study of the samples collected in these moraines, including by analysing detrital zircons. These minerals contain a record of when they crystallised, as well as the geochemical conditions in which they were formed; this gives researchers indirect information about the Antarctic bedrock, which is inaccessible.

The project is coordinated by Vinciane Debaille (ULB, ‘G-Time’ unit), in partnership with the Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences and VUB.

FAR

The main objective of this project is to provide a comprehensive and systematic analysis of the process of terrorism and radicalization in Belgium.

The first approach aims at describing precisely the various public policies initiatives that are justified by the prevention or the sanction of “radicalization processes”. The second approach is based upon a large population survey that will try to map contemporary attitudes of citizens residing in Belgium towards the use of violence either by radical groups or by the public authorities. Finally, the third objective of this research project is to examine at the micro-level those individuals whom the Belgian state authorities have been suspecting, and sometimes convicted, or support of terrorism or radicalization.

Based on the results of the various analyses, the researchers will suggest public policies which could ameliorate the social climate in Belgium by preventing further polarization and, in this sense, avoid the emergence of extremism. The project is conducted by researchers from ULB (Jean-Benoit Pilet, Corinne Torrekens and Marco Ognibene) – coordinator –, KU Leuven and INCC.

IM²MEDIATE

Governments, news media and public opinion in Europe are increasingly preoccupied with refugees seeking access to Western Europe. Public opinion is split (if not negative) and generally un- or misinformed (amalgamation across ‘groups’ being one of the problems), and integration policies cannot respond to the needs (see cross-country MIPEX results).

This project aims to investigate the dynamic interplay between media representations of the current non-EU immigrant situation with a specific emphasis on the refugee situation on the one hand and the governmental and societal (re)actions on the other, through four complementary multi-stakeholder group perspectives: analysis of news media content and journalism culture, study of societal reactions of the general public, study of push/pull factors in migration from a refugee perspective, and policy analysis into national governmental (re)actions across countries. In fine, this research will allow to formulate recommendations towards a more encouraging integration policy, while lowering anti-immigration and anti-refugee sentiment.

Coordinated by the Institute for Media Studies of KU Leuven, the project brings together the ULB - ReSIC - F. Heinderyckx-, several research centers of KU Leuven, the UCL, the University of Halmstad and the VUB.

IMMIGBEL

Belgium has become an immigrant society. First generation migrants account for more than 15 percent of the Belgian work force and for over 50 percent of labour force growth. However, the socio-economic position of migrants in Belgium leaves much to be desired: the employment rate gap between migrants and natives and first generation migrants’ poverty rates are the highest in the EU15.

The IMMIGBEL research project (Improving the Labour Market Position of People with a Migration background in Belgium) aims to understand the causes behind the employment rate of people with a migration background. Researchers will use large scale longitudinal data (from administrative datasets and surveys) to map labour market trajectories of these people. They will analyze the role of determinants such as origin, migration history, gender, age and household characteristics. The project contains a special focus on gender gap, and the opportunities for women with immigration background on the labour market. Finally, the project will invest the labour market integration of new comers and especially role of the demand side - firms and employers.

The project is led by University of Antwerp, with the collaboration of ULB (François Rycx, Centre Emile Bernheim & DULBEA, Solvay Brussels School of Economics and Management)

IMPRESS

The project "IMPRESS: Beyond ideological conflict: religion and free-thought in the Belgian medical press (1840-1914)" will work towards two integrated aims to highlight the scientific potential of 19th-century medical heritage and stimulate future (digital) research.

First, researchers will digitize a corpus of three important Belgian medical journals, issued between 1840 and 1914 (Bulletin de l’Académie Royale de Médecine de Belgique; Journal de Médecine, de Chirurgie et de Pharmacologie; Journal des Sciences Médicales de Louvain). This aims to serve as a test case and methodological model for both the digitization and the digital analysis of historical scientific texts.

Secondly, interdisciplinary PhD research into these medical journals will focus on ideological conflict, and more in particular on the role of religion and free-thought in 19th-century medicine. Combining insights and approaches from the fields of medical history, the history of religious and political ideas, and linguistics, the researchers will use text mining and linguistic methods.

MASS2ANT

The climate of the high latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere has changed considerably over the last decades, but the origin and long-term relevance of those changes are not well understood, partially because of a lack of data. To make progress in our understanding of these dynamics, this project propose to study the Surface Mass Balance (net snow accumulation at the surface) variability in the Princess Ragnhild Coast region (Antarctica) at different spatial and temporal scales.

Thanks to a combined observations-modeling approach, the research will determine, among others, if the changes are the result of anthropogenic forcing and/or linked to the natural variability of oceanic and atmospheric circulation. The project will also allow a better understanding global climate dynamics and improve the future projections for Antarctica and its impact on sea level changes, which will refine assessments available to policy makers.

Coordinated by the UCL, this project associates the ULB - Laboratoire de Glaciologie J-L. Tison-, the Royal Meteorological Institute of Belgium, the University of Colorado and the Delft University of TechnologyThe project will take place in the vicinity of the Belgian polar Base Princesse Elisabeth.

MIGRADAPT

Environmental changes are increasingly influencing migration journeys and migrant’s activities in both the country of destination and origin. However, only few studies exist as to how migration could actually work for adaptation to environmental changes, and none of them addresses migration in Belgium.

MIGRADAPT focuses on recent migrations to Belgium from three different ‘climate hotspot’ countries: Morocco, Senegal and the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). By connecting migrants in Belgium with their communities of origin, the transnational and multi-sited study’s goal is twofold. First, the researchers will analyse the role of environmental factors influencing traditional migration drivers throughout migrants’ fragmented journeys (with a particular attention to perceptions). Second, they will try to understand under which socio-economic and political conditions migrants in Belgium can support the adaptation and resilience of their communities of origin, through different types of remittances and initiatives.

MIGRADAPT includes four partners: ULB – Edwin Zaccai and Samuel Lietaer (Centre d'Etudes du Développement durable, IGEAT, Faculté des Sciences), l’ULg, University of Antwerp and d’Anvers and the Royal Museum for Central Africa.

NEANDERTHAL-3D

The ‘NEANDERTHAL-3D’ project aims to highlight Belgian scientific and cultural heritage as well the current state of the art research in Paleoanthropology. The project will evaluate how to make accessible the existing digital collection of over 300 Neanderthal and human specimens which are housed at Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences. It will also focus on how to showcase the reconstructed Spy II Neanderthal, one of the skeletons discovered in the Spy cave and one of the most complete Neanderthal skeletons available.

The role of the Laboratory of Anatomy, Biomechanics and Organogenesis (LABO, Faculty of Medicine) in this project is to improve digital data and models. Researchers will develop improved methods that better represent muscle behavior within modelling work. The following improvement of lhpFusionBox, the lab’ scientific software, will allow measurements to be taken more easily and also improve the biomechanical analysis and morphological comparison of different specimens.

NEANDERTHAL-3D is coordinated by Serge Van Sint Jan (Laboratory of Anatomy, Biomechanics and Organogenesis, Faculty of Medicine, ULB), and includes the Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences, the VUB and the Association pour la Diffusion de l’Information Archéologique (ADIA).

OCTAVE

Oxygenated Volatile Organic Compounds (OVOCs), such as methanol and formaldehyde, have a significant impact on the atmospheric chemistry and climate. However, the paucity of OVOC observations as well as deficient knowledge of their sources and sinks, make the OVOC budget difficult to evaluate, especially in tropical regions and over oceans. Relying on an integrated approach that combines in situ measurements, satellite observations and modelling, the project aims at better understanding and quantifying the impact of OVOCs on atmospheric oxidants and climate-related gases in those regions. In this framework, ULB processes the satellite observations and analyses the spatial distribution and time evolution in the concentrations of several volatile organic compounds, thanks to more than 10 years of measurements from the IASI sounder, orbiting the Earth on the European MetOp meteorological satellites.

Coordinated by the Royal Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy (BIRA-IASB), this project brings together teams from the ULB - Quantum Chemistry and Photophysics Unit, P-F. Coheur -, the University of Reunion Island (CNRS-LACy) and the Laboratory of Physical Meteorology (LaMP).

PAStECA

The conversion of natural lands into human-dominated landscapes has dramatically accelerated during the last decades. This transformation can have impacts on biodiversity, climate and land surface feedbacks, soil and landscape degradation, and also alter ecosystem services. Assessing the processes of land use and land cover (LULC) changes is of paramount importance to embed sustainability in development strategies, ecosystem management, and land use planning, particularly for developing countries where rates of LULC changes are highest. However, some regions are not covered with such studies. Thanks to the aerial photographs and other archives of the Royal Museum of Central Africa, and maps and analyses derived from them, the project will be able to study the dynamics of LULC and environmental changes in a region of Central Africa that did not have any baseline studies.

The project is co-ordinated by the Royal Museum for Central Africa (RMCA), and brings together the ULB – IGEAT, E.Wolff and the KU Leuven.

PUMOMIG

As the current migratory context and political difficulties to face it has led to an increase of the public opinion’s polarisation regarding asylum and refugees, it is important to address this question. ‘PUMOMIG’ project will analyse this polarisation and its links to policies, as it is necessary for a better understanding of the current debate on migration in Europe and Belgium.

The project will follow two objectives, with a European comparative perspective and a specific focus on Belgium. First, the project will investigate the public opinion towards asylum seekers and refugees, but also how these groups perceive Belgium, its asylum system and its reception policies. The second objective is to analyse the polarisation of the public opinion by focusing on pro and anti- refugees’ actions at the local level. The focus is then on attitudes, representations, discourses and practices about refugees, on the interactions at the local level between the majority populations and newly arrived migrants.

This research will allow understanding the links between public opinion and the implementation of asylum and reception policies. The project includes research teams from three Belgian universities: ULB: A. Rea, M. Gagliolo ; KULeuven : B. Meuleman, J. Wets, P. De Cuyper, A. Hondeghem ; ULiège : M. Martiniello).

UGESCO

The majority of digital collections at the Federal Scientific Institutions (FSIs) still have (meta)data issues affecting the exploration, interpretation and exploitation of their content. The interdisciplinary UGESCO project (Upscaling the Geo-temporal Enrichment, Exploitation and Exploitation of Scientific Collections) aims to work more specifically on the problem of spatio-temporal metadata - e.g., the exact date and location of a photograph. To this end, the project partners are working to develop tools for extracting and enriching these geo-temporal (meta)data. They also investigate the added value of microtask crowdsourcing in validating and improving the generated metadata. Finally, Geo-temporal mapping services will be developed to visualize and query the data in an end user-oriented way.

Partners: Seth van Hooland - ReSIC, Faculté de Lettres, Traduction et Communication ULB, UGent (ELIS and CARTOGIS departments), KULeuven (ITEC), Archives générales du royaume (CegeSoma).

3rd call for projects - 2014

GRESP-HEALTH

Living close to green spaces and water is often associated with better health. But is the proximity of such spaces the sole factor positively influencing health? The aim of this project is to study the effects that living close to a green space - parks, gardens - or water - a lake or river - have on morbidity and health in Belgium. The many different types of such spaces and their geographical distribution, including such aspects as accessibility, will be considered, comparing them with air and noise pollution aspects

On the basis of official census data, information on diseases and mortality rates, age groups and socio-economic and socio-cultural factors, the researchers will look into whether there are any links allowing us to improve our knowledge on the relationships between green spaces, air quality, noise and health, thereby providing recommendations for designing such spaces.

Coordinated by the KULeuven, this project brings together teams from the ULB - Catherine Bouland, Research Centre for Environmental and Occupational Health, School of Public Health -, the UCL, the UH, the VUB and the ISP.

IMMIBEL

The starting point of this project is the wish to map the history of migration phenomena on the basis of a set of archives rich in material but as yet little explored: the 150,000 individual case files of foreigners drawn up by Belgium's Sûreté Publique between 1840 and 1890. Following a quantitative macro-study, research will move to a micro-level, looking at the migrants themselves.

Three categories of migrants have been singled out - excluded people, sailors and "knowledge workers" (researchers, technicians, students) - with a view to establishing their trajectories and networks. The goal is to assess the attitude - repressive or accommodating - of the Belgian State and its administration towards this growing "Europe on the move" in a context of heightened industrial rivalry. A further goal is to understand the mechanisms behind the demarcation of what was "national" and what was "foreign" by those directly subject to its effects - and not solely by those making this distinction.

Coordinated by the VUB, the project includes a team from the ULB - Kenneth Bertrams, Modern and Contemporary Worlds, Faculty of Philosophy and Letters.

JUSINBELLGIUM

This project will be developing a digital database allowing Belgian judicial archives pertaining to war crimes, genocide and crimes against humanity to be identified, described and digitised. It will focus on documents produced by Belgian courts in post-conflict legal proceedings in the period 1914 - 2014. Though these archives constitute a unique documentary heritage, they are often not well-known and difficult to access.

The goal of the project is to produce a lasting, multidisciplinary search tool. Its aim is to include these files in a dynamic, interlinked and international archiving system, and to contribute to the planned database of the International Criminal Court, making these collections available online beyond Belgian borders.

Coordinated by the ULB - P. Lagrou from the Research Centre for Modern and Contemporary Worlds -, the project brings together teams from the National Archives of Belgium, KULeuven and the Phillip University of Marburg.

MADDLAIN

Starting in the mid-1990's, cultural institutions moved into the digital era. Now is therefore the time for these organisations to study the impact of these upheavals on the new practices and expectations of their clientele. The Maddlain project does just this, looking into the behaviour of the different clienteles of the State Archives (AGR), the Centre for Historical Research and Documentation on War and Contemporary Society (CEGESOMA) and the Royal Library (KBR) in accessing digital information.

After a phase dedicated to collecting and consolidating a large amount of information, the project will go on to conduct a three-step study, looking first at the behaviour of the clientele at large; then specifically targeting the e-learning practices of university students; and finally studying virtual research environments, looking at how researchers work. Once the project is completed, the three Federal institutions will use the results to fine-tune their data management and information offering with a view to better aligning them with the actual needs of these different clienteles.

Partners: Seth Van Hooland - ReSIC, ULB Faculty of Philosophy and Arts, KBR, AGR-ARA, iMinds.

STARLAB

Though the majority of stars have relatively low masses, these play a fundamental role in the production of chemical elements heavier than iron. Via convective mixing mechanisms, the stars transport to the surface of their atmosphere heavy elements produced in their inner layers, before expelling them into the interstellar medium.

Such low to medium mass stars thus actively participate in the Galaxy's steady chemical enrichment, in turn influencing the nucleosynthesis and formation of stars - and their attendant planets. The aim of the STARLAB project is to gain a better understanding of the key physical and chemical processes used in the evolution of these low to medium mass stars.

The project is the result of a desire for collaboration between the ULB Faculty of Science's Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics (under Alain Jorissen), that of the KULeuven and the Uccle Observatory.

SUSPENS

In this project researchers intend to contribute to the debate on how society should move towards becoming a low-/zero-carbon society, reconciling environmental and social objectives. They will be exploring the interdependencies and inequalities at micro-level, observing how politics can reconcile social and environmental objectives on the way to a low-/zero-carbon society.

Researchers will be looking into a range of issues: How can the apparent compromise between environmental objectives and those of distributive justice be understood in association with low-/zero-carbon policies? What are the mechanisms explaining how households are differently affected by these policies, thereby creating socio-environmental inequalities? What governance mechanisms are being used and what can Belgium learn from other countries?

Partners: UA (coordinator), the Federal Planning Bureau and the ULB - Tom Bauler and Grégoire Wallenborn from the Centre for Sustainable Development Studies

2nd call for projects - 2013

AFRIFORD

AFRIFORD is a project aimed at understanding how past climate changes and the activities of ancient indigenous societies have affected the current distribution and composition of African rainforests and the genetic diversity of their trees. Taking a multidisciplinary approach, the research includes paleo-ecological (palynology, anthracology) analyses of lake sediments and soil (UGent, MRAC, UPMC), dendrochronology (MRAC, UBern), vegetation modelling (ULg), and population genetics (ULB). This combination of skills will allow us to validate for the first time a scenario showing how tree species have reacted (distribution, adaptation) to environmental changes in the forests of Central Africa.

Partners: Olivier Hardy - Evolution Biologique et Ecologie, Faculté des Sciences ULB, ULg, UGent, MRAC, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Université de Bern.

AquaRES

Organism names are used in a wide range of scientific, environmental management and policy domains. Specialist expert-managed taxonomic databases are therefore essential for ensuring the relevance and quality of stored biological data. Ensuring data interoperability, a number of these databases are used directly for monitoring biodiversity. The main goal of the AquaRES (Aquatic Species Register Exchange and Services) project is to ensure the quality and interoperability of aquatic species databases through developing specialised web services. Such services are needed to allow fast and automatic data exchange between the World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS), the Register of Antarctic Marine Species (RAMS) and the Freshwater Animal Diversity Assessment (FADA), while at the same time making the data available to such projects as the Encyclopedia of Life (EoL), the Catalogue of Life (CoL), the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) and to such e-Science initiatives as the Biodiversity Virtual e-Laboratory (BioVeL) or LifeWatch.

For more info: http://biomar.ulb.ac.be/projects/aquares/


Partners: Bruno Danis - Laboratoire de Biologie marine, Faculté des Sciences ULB, IRSNB-KBIN, VLIZ

More information.

HECTOR

The goal of the multidisciplinary research project HECTOR (Hybrid Electronic Curation, Transformation and Organization of Records) is to model the transformation, organisation and storage of hybrid files (paper, computer records and electronic data) within the Belgian federal administration. The intention of the project is to provide a seamless framework for digitisation procedures, post-digitisation evaluation and selection policies, meta-data diagrams and classification plans, efficient access management policies and policies for the parallel management of documents and hybrid files, with a view to facilitating the transition towards a reliable, secure and efficient system of e-government.


Partners: Seth Van Hooland - ReSIC, Faculté de Philosophie et Lettres ULB, UNamur, AGR-ARA.

VERSO

Home to much of the world's marine biodiversity, the Southern Ocean is experiencing unprecedented environmental changes on a major spatial and temporal scale, changes that could profoundly alter the biology of the Southern Ocean. The goal of the vERSO (Ecosystem Responses to global change: a multi-scale approach in the Southern Ocean) project is to evaluate the impact of the main stress factors associated with global change on Antarctic benthic ecosystems, using a multi-scale approach looking at representative taxa from different size classes of the benthos. To achieve this goal, research is to be conducted on connectivity and adaptation, on trophic ecology and sensitivity, and on resilience; data will be merged and analysed using proven forecasting models.

For more info: http://biomar.ulb.ac.be/projects/verso/


Partners: Bruno Danis - Laboratoire de Biologie marine, Faculté des Sciences ULB, UGent, KUL, VUB, ULg, Museum des Sciences naturelles, Musée d'histoire naturelle, Université de Bourgogne

More information.

1rst call for projects - 2012:

AfRe-Slide

The project "Landslides in Equatorial Africa: Identifying culturally, technically and economically feasible resilience strategies" (AfRe-Slide) is looking at resilience in the face of landslides in Uganda and Cameroon. The project involves a combination of disciplines (volcanology, geography, economics and anthropology). For the ULB, Dr. Astrid de Hontheim (ULB Centre of Cultural Anthropology) is in charge of the project's anthropology side. Her research, to be done in the region of Mt Cameroon and Mt Rwenzori (Uganda), will focus on cultural representations related to land, the reorganisation of land rights, power relations and the use of social networks when landslides occur.

Partners: Véronique Joiris - Centre d'Anthropologie culturelle, Faculté des Sciences sociales et politiques ULB, VUB, KUL, MRAC.

Food4Sustainability

The goal of the "Food4Sustainability" project is to identify the conditions under which food systems can be reformed with a view to achieving a low-carbon society. This is a transition needing to take account of both extrinsic (economic and financial rewards) and intrinsic (social norms and values adhered to by those concerned) motivations. The CERMi will be working on innovative and efficient financial structures aimed at reducing the impact of food systems on climate change.


Partners: Marek Hudon - CERMi, Faculté Solvay Brussels School of Economics and Management ULB, UCL, KUL.

MEMEX WWI

The "Reconnaissance et ressentiment" project is looking at experiences and memories of the Great War in Belgium. Going under the name of MEMEX-WWI, the project brings together historians, political scientists, philologists and psychologists. It is devoted to the collective memory of the First World War on both sides of the linguistic border, using press analyses and public surveys. Researchers will also be looking at what Belgian soldiers went through emotionally in combat, analysing their letters and diaries.


Partners: Olivier Klein - Centre de recherche en psychologie sociale et interculturelle, Faculté des Sciences Psychologiques et de l'Education ULB, KUL, UCL, UGent, Ceges.

MEQIN

The project "Measuring equivalent incomes: The implementation of individual well-being measures from Belgian data" gathers scientists in economic theory, health economics, social policy, econometric theory, and applied econometrics. These scientists will develop new measures of individual well-being that take into account that well-being is a multi-dimensional phenomenon. They will also gather an unique data set on Belgian households that will allow to compute these measures. As such they will be capable to answer questions related to poverty, gender inequality or more general socioeconomic inequality.


Partners: Bram De Rock - ECARES, Faculté Solvay Brussels School of Economics and Management ULB, UCL, KUL, UA.

TIC BELGIUM

The project "Transnational dynamics of social reform in the Low Countries" focuses on the history of social reforms in the period 1815-1914, particularly in the "Low Countries" (what is now mainly Belgium and the Netherlands). The projects show how social security policies were able to emerge in this period on local, national and European scales. The overall goal of the project is to demonstrate the connection between local activism, national reform agendas and the transnational circulation of ideas and practices on social support. The ULB's contribution will mainly be in the form of support for the semi-automatic collection of data.


Partners: Seth Van Hooland - ReSIC, Faculté de Philosophie et Lettres ULB, UGhent, UCL, UMaastricht, Archives de l'Etat.